Musical Theatre Links, 1960s

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How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying

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Cabaret

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Creative Nonfiction Research

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Two pages of research notes are due on Friday, 4/7.

Your notes are worth 100 class work points.

Your research notes include:

  • Information, stated in your own words, that interests YOU about the Dred Scott Decision, the Old Courthouse, and other cases at the Old Courthouse
  • Connections between your experiences and people you know and this history
  • Ideas for your ABCEDARIUS

Please limit your research to these two sites:

 

Works Cited Page Review

Before we begin our persuasive essay, we are going to practice MLA format: both the Works Cited page and in-text citations.

You start out with 

  • List of links

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  • Center 

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  • Works Cited

Screen Shot 2017-03-28 at 5.21.40 AMSource #1

  • List of links –> copy

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  • Open Easy Bib –> paste

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  • Do Easy Bib –> paste
  • Fix Spacing

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Source #2

  • List of links
  • Open Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Do Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Fix spacing 

Source #3

  • List of links
  • Open Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Do Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Fix spacing 

Source #4

  • List of links 
  • Open Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Do Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Fix spacing 

Source #5

  • List of links
  • Open Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Do Easy Bib –> Copy/paste
  • Fix spacing 

You finish with

  • Alphabetical Order
  • Fix Spacing

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Now create a practice Works Cited page for the following five links using this page as a guide (100 Class Work points):

 

http://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-boil-eggs-perfectly-every-time-cooking-lessons-from-the-kitchn-202415

http://www.academiabarilla.com/italian-recipes/how-to/cook-pasta.aspx

https://cooking.nytimes.com/guides/24-how-to-make-pancakes

http://www.davidlebovitz.com/how-to-clarify-butter-recipe/

http://www.finecooking.com/articles/how-to-make-perfect-pie-crust-dough.aspx

 

Saint Louis History for Crankie Workshop

HISTORY OF THE GATEWAY ARCH

Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (JNEM) was created in 1935, and became part of the National Park Service.

Civic leader Luther Ely Smith conceived the idea of building a memorial to help revive the riverfront and memorialize the story of the nation’s westward expansion. Through a nationwide design competition conducted 1947-1948, Eero Saarinen’s stainless steel Arch was chosen as the memorial that would celebrate the accomplishments of early pioneers. St. Louis celebrated with a groundbreaking on June 32, 1959.

Over the next few years, Saarinen perfected his design and workers began excavating the grounds in 1961.

In 1962, the Bi-State Development (BSD) was asked to finance the $2 million tram system that transports visitors to and from the top of the Arch. Meanwhile, it took steadfast coordination to put every piece of the Arch into place until the final section at the top of the Arch was secured on October 28, 1965.

Trams became operational in 1967, thanks to the funds that BSD raised by selling revenue bonds. In the same year, the Visitor Center, with exhibits, opened to the public.

Less than a decade later, the massive Museum of Westward opened beneath the Arch, featuring exhibits on St. Louis’ role as the Gateway to the West. Improvements to the monument continued as engineers added floodlights to illuminate the Arch exterior in 2001. Approximately two years later, the Grand Staircase, which spans from the levee at the Mississippi River banks to the base of the Arch, was completed.

In 2009, a non-profit organization called CityArchRiver 2015 spearheaded a project that will transform JNEM by creating a safe and inviting pedestrian bridge over the highway and a new museum beneath the Arch. After renovations, visitors will also encounter a new entrance to the facility and greater accessibility throughout the grounds. Groups traveling by bus will have more convenient access to drop-offs and parking, as well as to new performance spaces on the grounds. Bicyclists will enjoy extended bike trails.

Today, BSD continues to operate the trams as a cooperative effort with the National Park Service. October 28, 2015 marked the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the Arch.

MORE INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE GATEWAY ARCH

Thanks to hundreds of workers, the Arch was completed within budget and without the loss of one life.

Discover everything you want to know about the Gateway Arch with these frequently and not so frequently asked questions!

ST LOUIS ARCH FAQS

WHY WAS THE GATEWAY ARCH BUILT?
The structure was built as a monument to the vision of Thomas Jefferson and St. Louis’ role in the westward expansion of the United States.

HOW TALL IS THE GATEWAY ARCH?
630 feet, which is 63 stories, 192 meters, or 7560 inches tall

HOW WIDE IS THE GATEWAY ARCH?
The span is 630 feet at ground level between the outer sides of the legs.

HOW WIDE ARE THE LEGS AT THE BASE?
54 feet

HOW WIDE IS THE TOP?
17 feet

HOW MANY STAINLESS STEEL SECTIONS ARE THERE?
142

HOW MUCH DOES THE GATEWAY ARCH WEIGH?
43,226 tons

WHAT IS THE GATEWAY ARCH MADE OUT OF?
Steel and concrete. Double wall construction with 1/4″ stainless steel on the outside and 3/8″ structural steel on the inside. The distance between the wall or “skins” at the surface is 3 feet, narrowing to less than 1 foot at the top. There is a layer of concrete between the skins approximately half way up the legs of the Gateway Arch.

WHO WAS THE ARCHITECT?
Eero Saarinen won a national competition and the prize of designing the memorial in 1947.

WHAT IS THE SPEED OF THE TRAM CAPSULES?
340 feet per minute, approximately 3.86 miles per hour

DOES THE ARCH SWAY?
The Arch is designed to sway as much as 18 inches, and can withstand an earthquake, however under normal conditions the Arch does not sway. It takes a 50-mile an hour wind to move the top 1.5 inches each side of the center.

WHAT RIVER IS THAT DIRECTLY BELOW?
The Mississippi River flows directly below the east windows of the Arch at a normal top water speed of 3 miles per hour at a depth of about 12-15 feet. The Missouri River meets the Mississippi River about 15 miles to the north of the Arch.

OLD COURTHOUSE
Begin your experience by exploring the Old Courthouse, a historical landmark where Dred and Harriet Scott sued for freedom from slavery and Virginia Minor fought for women’s right to vote. Explore exhibits describing how St. Louis served as a hub for early settlers moving west.

ABOUT
Explore a significant part of U.S. history when you visit the Old Courthouse, which was built between 1839 and 1862. Tour this architectural masterpiece with restored courtrooms and experience a time and place where Dred and Harriet Scott sued for their freedom and Virginia Minor fought for women’s right to vote. Through special exhibits, learn about St. Louis’ role in early settlers’ movement into Western America.

DRED SCOTT (1800? — 1858)

INTRODUCTION
Dred Scott was a man born into slavery who tried many times, but failed, to gain his freedom through the Missouri courts. When his case reached the U.S. Supreme Court, the differences between proslavery and antislavery opinions in the United States were very clear. The controversial outcome of Dred Scott’s court case eventually contributed to the outbreak of civil war between the southern and northern states.

SYNOPSIS
Dred Scott was born into slavery sometime in 1795, in Southampton County, Virginia. He made history by launching a legal battle to gain his freedom. After his first owner died, Scott spent time in two free states working for several subsequent owners. Shortly after he married, he tried to buy freedom for himself and his family but failed, so he took his case to the Missouri courts, where he won only to have the decision overturned at the Supreme Court level, an event so controversial it was harbinger for Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and inevitably of the Civil War. Scott died in 1858.

Soundtrack Links, 1950s Musicals

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Overture

Runyonland

Fugue for Tinhorns

Follow the Fold

The Oldest Established

I’ll Know

A Bushell and a Peck

Adelaide’s Lament

Guys and Dolls

To Havana / Fugue for Tinhorns Reprise

Havana

If I Were A Bell

My Time of Day / I’ve Never Been in Love Before

Finale Act One

Entr’acte (Act Two Start)

Take Back Your Mink

Adelaide’s Second Lament

I’ve Never Been in Love Before Reprise (Scene Change)

More I Cannot Wish You

The Crapshooter’s Dance

Luck Be a Lady

Sue Me

Scene Change

Sit Down, You’re Rockin’ the Boat

Marry the Man Today

The Happy Ending / Guys And Dolls Reprise

A Woman In Love (from the film)

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Overture

I Whistle A Happy Tune

My Lord And Master

Hello Young Lovers

The March Of The Siamese Children

A Puzzlement

The Royal Bangkok Academy

Getting To Know You

We Kiss In A Shadow

A Puzzlement (Reprise)

Shall I Tell You What I Think Of You

Something Wonderful

Western People Funny

I Have Dreamed

Hello Young Lovers (Reprise)

The King and I (1956) – The Small House of Uncle Thomas

Song of the King

Shall We Dance -The King and I

Something Wonderful (Finale)

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Overture – My Fair Lady

Why Can’t the English?

Wouldn’t It Be Loverly

With a Little Bit of Luck

I’m an Ordinary Man

Just You Wait

The Rain in Spain

I Could Have Danced All Night (from “My Fair Lady”)

Ascot Gavotte

On the Street Where You Live

You Did It

Show Me

Get Me to the Church on Time

A Hymn to Him

Without You

I’ve Grown Accustomed to Her Face

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West Side Story [1] Prologue

West Side Story [2] Overture

West Side Story [3] Jet song

West Side Story [4] Something’s coming

West Side Story [5] Dance at the Gym

West Side Story [6] Maria

West Side Story [7] Tonight

West Side Story [8] America

West Side Story [9] Gee, Officer Krupke

West Side Story [10] Intermission

West Side Story [11] I feel Pretty

West Side Story [12] One hand, One heart

West Side Story [13] Quintet

West Side Story [14] The rumble

West Side Story [15] Somewhere

West Side Story [17] A boy like that

West Side Story [18] Final

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Overture – Gypsy (Original Broadway Cast 1959)

Gypsy (1993) – May We Entertain You

Gypsy (1993) – Some People

Gypsy (1993) – Small World

Gypsy (1993) – Baby June and Her Newsboys

Gypsy (1993) – Mr Goldstone

Gypsy (1993) – Little Lamb

Gypsy (1993) – You’ll Never Get Away from Me

Gypsy (1993) – Dainty June and Her Farmboys

Gypsy (1993) – If Momma Was Married

Gypsy (1993) – All I Need Is the Girl

Gypsy (1993) – Everything’s Coming Up Roses

Gypsy (1993) – Together (Wherever We Go)

Gypsy (1993) – You Gotta Get A Gimmick

Gypsy (1993) – Let Me Entertain You

Gypsy (1993) – Rose’s Turn

50 Good Books Every Black Woman Should Read

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Now that we have finished a seminal novel/masterwork by Zora Neale Hurston, please…

  • Choose ten titles from:

50 Good Books Every Black Woman Should Read

  • and Google search them on SparkNotes, Wikipedia, etc.
  • OR read the suggested links below for each book
  • Then choose three books that you would like to read and summarize why the book interests you in 4-5 sentences, demonstrating that you understand the plot, themes, and characters.

2.    The Fire Next Time by James Baldwin

The Fire Next Time Wikipedia

The Fire Next Time NY Times

3.    Sister Citizen by Melissa Harris-Perry

Between The Covers Book Review: Sister Citizen by Melissa Harris-Perry 

4.    The Miseducation of the Negro by Carter G. Woodson

History Is a Weapon: The Mis-Education of the Negro

5.    Soledad Brother: The Prison Letters of George Jackson by George Jackson

History Is a Weapon: Soledad Brother: The Prison Letters of George Jackson

6. Cane by Jean Toomer

Cane by Jean Toomer Wikipedia

7. The Prisoner’s Wife by Asha Bandele

Kirkus Book Reviews: The Prisoner’s Wife

8.    Krik? Krak? by Edwidge Danticat

SparkNotes: Krik? Krak? 

Krik? Krak! Wikipedia

9. Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe

SparkNotes: Things Fall Apart 

10. The Blacker the Berry by Wallace Thurman

The Blacker the Berry: Wikipedia

11. Jesus and the Disinherited by Howard Thurman

PBS: Howard Thurman

12.    Black Bourgeoise by E. Franklin Frazier

Amazon: Black Bourgeoise

13.    Jubilee by Margaret Walker

Wikipedia Jubilee 

14. Mumbo Jumbo by Ishmael Reed

Mumbo Jumbo Wikipedia

15. The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison

SparkNotes: The Bluest Eye

16. Kindred by Octavia Butler

SparkNotes: Kindred

17. One Day My Soul Just Opened Up by Iyanla Vanzant

Amazon: One Day My Soul Just Opened Up

18. In Search of Satisfaction by J. California Cooper

Book Review LA Times: In Search of Satisfaction 

19. Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison

SparkNotes: Invisible Man

20. A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry

SparkNotes: A Raisin in the Sun

21. A Lesson Before Dying by Ernest Gaines

SparkNotes: A Lesson Before Dying

22. Black Betty by Walter Mosley

eNotes: Black Betty

23. Maud Martha by Gwendolyn Brooks

eNotes: Maud Martha

24. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou

SparkNotes: I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings

25. for colored girls who have considered suicide/when the rainbow is not enuf by Ntozake Shange

Wikipedia: For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow Is  Not Enuf

26. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman by Michele Wallace

eNotes: Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman Analysis

27. The Color Purple by Alice Walker

SparkNotes: The Color Purple

28. The Souls of Black Folk by W. E. B. DuBois

Wikipedia: The Souls of Black Folk

29. The Street by Ann Petry

eNotes: The Street

30. The Women of Brewster Place by Gloria Naylor

SparkNotes: The Women of Brewster Place

31. Praisesong for the Widow by Paule Marshall

eNotes: Praisesong for the Widow

32. This Bridge Called My Back by Cherríe L. Moraga

Wikipedia: This Bridge Called My Back

33. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches by Audre Lorde

Wikipedia: Sister Outsider

34. Waiting to Exhale by Terri McMillan

Publisher’s Weekly: Waiting to Exhale

35. Native Son by Richard Wright

SparkNotes: Richard Wright

36. Your Blues Ain’t Like Mine by Bebe Moore Campbell

Kirkus Review: Your Blues Ain’t Like Mine

37. Kehinde by Buchi Emecheta

Publisher’s Weekly: Kehinde

38. We a BaddDDD People by Sonia Sanchez

Oxford Reference: We a BaddDDD People

39. The Ways of White Folks by Langston Hughes

Wikipedia: The Ways of White Folks 

eNotes: The Ways of White Folks

40. Fences by August Wilson

SparkNotes: Fences

41. The Debt by Randall Robinson

The Debt: Randall Robinson Talks About What America Owes to Blacks

42. Conversations With God: Two Centuries of Prayers by African-Americans by James Melvin Washington

God Web: Dr. James Melvin Washington

43. The Little Black Book of Success by Elaine Meryl Brown, Rhonda Joy McLean and Marsha Haygood

The Little Black Book of Success

44. Annie Allen by Gwendolyn Brooks

eNotes: Annie Allen

45. Why I Love Black Women by Michael Eric Dyson

Book of the Week: Why I Love Black Women

46. The Wedding by Dorothy West

Publisher’s Weekly: The Wedding

47. When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost by Joan Morgan

Publisher’s Weekly: When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost

48. Tumbling by Diane McKinney-Whetstone

Diane McKinney-Whetstone: Tumbling

49. What Looks Like Crazy on an Ordinary Day by Pearl Cleage

Oprah.com: What Looks Like Crazy on an Ordinary Day

50. Dreams from My Father by Barack Obama

Wikipedia: Dreams from My Father

 

Musical Theatre Playlist

Instructions

Now that you have received an introduction to the origins of musical theatre and seen some footage of the early pioneers of the genre, it’s time to do some additional, independent research.

Please create a playlist of ten songs from the early decades of musical theatre, as well as liner notes for each song, giving some background information/history about the artist.

Your playlist & liner notes need to include music associated with the following artists:

  • Florenz Ziegfeld
  • Jerome Kern
  • George Cohan
  • Bert Williams
  • Irving Berlin
  • Fanny Brice

Your liner notes need to connect the song to historical information about the artist, perhaps explaining how the song fits into their style and/or body of work. See “Liner Note Resources” below. Each of your liner notes should be a couple sentences.

Songs/Videos To Choose From

Ziegfeld Videos:

Ziegfeld Style Nightclub Act from 1929 (Part One) 

Ziegfeld Follies of 1912 Row Row Row (1940)

Brox Sisters and Franklyn Baur — Ziegfeld Follies 1927

Player Piano Roll — Shaking the Blues Away — Ziegfeld Follies

Frank Crumit — Sweet Alice 1923 Ziegfeld Follies of 1923

The Ziegfeld Follies: I Can’t Get Started

Jerome Kern Videos:

Songs by Jerome Kern Google

Ella Fitzgerald — Remind Me (the Jerome Kern Songbook)

Paul Robeson – Ol’ Man River (Showboat – 1936) J.Kern O. Hammerstein II

Ella Fitzgerald – Can’t Help Lovin’ Dat Man (Jerome Kern Songbook)

“The Last Time I Saw Paris” from Lady Be Good – Ann Sothern

Lyrics “The Last Time I Saw Paris”

George Cohan Videos:

Over There — the only studio recording made by George M. Cohan

Over There Lyrics George Cohan

The Yankee Doodle Boy (George M. Cohan)

Mary’s A Grand Old Name (George M. Cohan)

Bing Crosby – Mary’s a grand old name

Give My Regards to Broadway (George M. Cohan)

George Cohan Songs Google

Bert Williams Videos:

Bert Williams — “Somebody Else, Not Me” (1919)

Lyrics Bert Williams, Somebody Else, Not Me

Nobody by Bert Williams

Nobody Lyrics Bert Williams

Bert Williams — When The Moon Shines On The Moonshine — 1919

It’s Nobody’s Business But My Own by Bert Williams 1919

Bert Williams – I’m Sorry I Ain’t Got It You Could Have It if I Had It Blues 1919

Bert Williams Songs: Google 

Irving Berlin Videos:

Irving Berlin: Alexander’s Ragtime Band

Kate Smith Introduces God Bless America :: Best Quality

Al Jolson – A Pretty Girl Is Like A Melody 1936 Irving Berlin

JUDY GARLAND ‘I Love a Piano’.wmv

Ethel Merman / There’s No Business Like Show Business

Top Hat – No Strings

This Is The Army, Mr. Jones | Irving Berlin (Lyrics)

Irving Berlin Songs Google

Fanny Brice Videos:

Fanny Brice “My Man” (Ziegfeld Follies of 1929)

Fanny Brice – Second Hand Rose (1921)

Second Hand Rose Lyrics

Fanny Brice – I’d Rather Be Blue Over You, 1929

Fanny Brice – Cooking Breakfast For The One I Love, 1930

Fanny Brice – Becky is Back in the Ballet (1922)

Fanny Brice-Quainty Dainty Me (from Everybody Sing)

Fanny Brice Songs Google

Liner Note Resources

Wikipedia Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. 

PBS: Florenz Ziegfeld

The Parlor Songs Academy Florenz Ziegfeld

Wikipedia Jerome Kern

Jerome Kern Obituary NY Times

Songwriters Hall of Fame Jerome Kern

George M. Cohan Wikipedia

George M. Cohan Obituary NY Times

Songwriters Hall of Fame George M. Cohan

Bert Williams Wikipedia

Black History Now Bert Williams

Black Face: Bert Williams

Irving Berlin Wikipedia

The Parlor Songs Academy: Irving Berlin

Songwriters Hall of Fame: Irving Berlin

Wikipedia Fanny Brice

Obituary Fanny Brice NY Times

PBS: Fanny Brice

What Is Academic Integrity?

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During our first few days back at school, students were asked to respond to the prompt:

Write your own brief statement about “academic integrity.” What does it look like to have “academic integrity,” besides the basics of “not cheating?” Think broadly.

Here is some of what we came up with:

“Be proud of your work even if it’s bad.”
— Shaniah Fitts

“Do your own work for your own future.”
— Evie Boyer-Heagle

“Value your actual learning over your grade in the class.”
— Julia Aastrom

“Take ownership for your learning, and do your work, and do it to your maximum capacity.”
— Matthias Henning 

“Be honest about your work.”
— Nadeya McMiller

“Be respectful enough to do your own work, not showing poorly on yourself and on the class.”
— Kynedra Murray

“Show leadership and great responsibility by turning your work in.”
— Kenyatta Hampton

“Have your own opinions and believe what you believe. Write what you want to write, not take others writing.”
— Lauryn Becker

“Be honest with yourself, teachers, peers, and your work, and be proud and responsible for your own work.”
— London Day

“Be able to be trusted to work quietly independently.”
— Nate Branch

“Really focus on your work and set goals for yourself and study hard and pay attention. Be dedicated to what you’re doing; don’t get distracted by what your friends are doing. Really be on top of what you’re doing. Focus on yourself and your grades before you do other things that won’t help you reach your goals.”
— Marie Hawthorne

“Love yourself enough to know you deserve to learn.”
— Kayla Rollins

“Be honest with your work and take responsibility for how you treat it.”
— Clare Whyte

“Do your own work. If points are docked, don’t cheat, because you are not helping yourself. You help yourself by fixing and growing from your problems.”
— Kareemah Thomas

Historical Notes, Handmaid’s Tale

Read the excerpt from SparkNotes below and write a $1 summary using each of the following 10 cent words:

  1. Intellectual
  2. Gilead
  3. tapes
  4. professor
  5. commander
  6. Nick
  7. birthrate
  8. Bible
  9. Mayday
  10. Eyes

Summary: Historical Notes on The Handmaid’s Tale

The epilogue is a transcript of a symposium held in 2195, in a university in the Arctic. Gilead is long gone, and Offred’s story has been published as a manuscript titled The Handmaid’s Tale. Her story was found recorded on a set of cassette tapes locked in an army foot locker in Bangor, Maine. The main part of the epilogue is a speech by an expert on Gilead named Professor Pieixoto. He talks about authenticating the cassette tapes. He says tapes like these would be very difficult to fake. The first section of each tape contains a few songs from the pre-Gileadean period, probably to camouflage the actual purpose of the tapes. The same voice speaks on all the tapes, and they are not numbered, nor are they arranged in any particular order, so the professors who transcribed the story had to guess at the intended chronology of the tapes.

Pieixoto warns his audience against judging Gilead too harshly, because such judgments are culturally biased, and he points out that the Gilead regime was under a good deal of pressure from the falling birthrate and environmental degradation. He says the birthrate declined for a variety of reasons, including birth control, abortions, AIDS, syphilis, and deformities and miscarriages resulting from nuclear plant disasters and toxic waste. The professor explains how Gilead created a group of fertile women by criminalizing all second marriages and nonmarital relationships, confiscating children of those marriages and partnerships, and using the women as reproductive vessels. Using the Bible as justification, they replaced what he calls “serial polygamy” with “simultaneous polygamy.” He explains that like all new systems, Gilead drew on the past in creating its ideology. In particular, he mentions the racial tensions that plagued pre-Gilead, which Gilead incorporated in its doctrine.

He discusses the identity of the narrator. They tried to discover it using a variety of methods, but failed. Pieixoto notes that historical details are scanty because so many records were destroyed in purges and civil war. Some tapes, however, were smuggled to Save the Women societies in England. He says the names Offred used to describe her relatives were likely pseudonyms employed to protect the identities of her loved ones. The Commander was likely either Frederick Waterford or B. Frederick Judd. Both men were leaders in the early years of Gilead, and both were probably instrumental in building the society’s basic structure. Judd devised the Particicution, realizing that it would release the pent-up anger of the Handmaids. Pieixoto says that Particicutions became so popular that in Gilead’s “Middle Period” they occurred four times a year. Judd also came up with the notion that women should control other women. Pieixoto says that no empire lacks this “control of the indigenous by members of their own group.” Pieixoto explains that both Waterford and Judd likely came into contact with a virus that caused sterility in men. He says the evidence suggests that Waterford was the Commander of Offred’s story; records show that in “one of the earliest purges” Waterford was killed for owning pictures and books, and for indulging “liberal tendencies.” Pieixoto remarks that many early Commanders felt themselves above the rules, safe from any attack, and that in the Middle Period Commanders behaved more cautiously.

The professor says the final fate of Offred is unknown. She may have been recaptured. If she escaped to England or Canada, it is puzzling that she did not make her story public, as many women did. However, she might have wanted to protect others who were left behind, or she may have feared repercussions against her family. Punishing the relatives of escaped Handmaids was done secretly to minimize bad publicity in foreign lands. He says Nick’s motivation cannot be understood fully; he reveals that Nick was a member both of the Eyes and of Mayday, and that the men he called were sent to rescue Offred. In the end, Pieixoto says, they will probably never know the real ending of Offred’s story. The novel ends with the line, “‘Are there any questions?’”